Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

The Life, Times and Clothes of Vivienne Westwood

Vivienne Westwood is today famous around the world as one of the most cutting edge and out there designers of our time and is credited with bringing many subcultures in the world into the mainstream and integrating the design elements from all these subcultures into her fashion collections much to the acclaim of fashion critics and the general public as well.

She is most often credited and quite rightly so with being the person or the fashion designer who has almost single handedly bought the punk and new wave subcultures and their unique design elements and styles into the world of main stream fashion.

Vivienne Westwood has now been putting fashion collections on the ramps of fashion weeks for nearly thirty years as this year will be the thirteenth anniversary of the first time that she showed a fashion collection to the world. In 1981 she showed her first collection in a catwalk show and the theme that she chose for the collection was pirates. In the following years which include the rest of the nineteen eighties and the beginning of the consequent decade, she released fashion collections one after another to ever increasing applause and appreciation from the fashion world and she calls those years the pagan years.

During this period Vivienne Westwood took her inspiration from everything from punks to ragamuffins and even what she calls in a phrase that she covered herself, Tatler girls. She has received a lot of recognition for her services to the world of British fashion in particular and the fashion world in general as well. Not only has Westwood won the designer of the year award many times, she has also received some of the highest honors awarded by the country of England and has been awarded an Order of the British Empire for her services to fashion as far back as nineteen ninety two. A few years later in recognition of her continuing services and ever cutting edge styles and fashion collections, the OBE was changed to an even higher honor a DBE in the year two thousand and six.

Today her clothes are sold around the world as well as in three exclusive shops in London as well as one in Leeds and one in Milan in Italy. The best place to look at her is fantastic creations though is still online at a reputable online retailer that will always have the latest pieces available at the best prices.

Things to Look for When Choosing a Motorcycle Repair School

A passion for motorcycles is a basic requirement for being a successful motorcycle mechanic. In fact, most motorcycle mechanics started their career simply as a hobby. They were motorcycle lovers who were toying with their bikes to make them run more smoothly until they realized that they could earn money doing something they enjoy. Some of them work in repair shops equipped with their own personal experience in motorcycle repair while others further their knowledge and skills by enrolling in a motorcycle repair school. Being a motorcycle mechanic is meticulous work and it can be tough knowing that a rider’s life depends very much on one’s skills.

When equipment breaks down, a mechanic is responsible for diagnosing the source, nature, and extent of the problem. A highly skilled mechanic is able to diagnose mechanical, electrical, and fuel problems and to troubleshoot quickly. To be able to quickly and accurately diagnose problems is a mark of an expert mechanic and this is also an exhibition of their great problem solving ability, as well as their comprehensive knowledge on how the equipment operates.

A mechanic’s job also includes minor tuning or replacement of a single part of the motorcycle. They may also be asked to perform complete engine overhaul, although this job could take many hours as they need to take down the engine and replace defective valves, bearings pistons, and other interior parts. Those who are highly skilled utilize specialized machineries and the most advanced computerized equipment to adjust and tune motorcycles, especially those that are used for racing.

To qualify for a trainee mechanic position, some employers prefer applicants with a high school diploma or the equivalent, but there are also some who accept those with less education as long as they exhibit satisfactory reading, writing, and math abilities. However, due to the growing complexity of motorcycles, those with a diploma or a certificate from a formal training program in motorcycle repair have more employment opportunities. This is why enrolling in a trade school or institute to be a certified motorcycle mechanic could be a wise decision.

Would-be motorcycle technicians can either opt for a technician diploma or an associate degree in applied science or mechanics. By attending a trade school, a student will receive the needed job training and basic credentials to be a motorcycle mechanic. After completing this program, he will be certified as a trained technician in this field.

Meanwhile, the associate degree is designed for mechanics to earn the educational qualifications that match the needs of their profession. The program can be completed within one or two years. Courses taught in an associate degree include math, basic management, human relations, infrastructure and resources, and hands-on experiences such as disassembling, assembling and overhauling of motorcycle equipment. Online courses are available for those who can’t manage to attend an on-campus program.

Because there are many schools that offer motorcycle repair classes, it is important that prospective students choose a school that can develop their full potential and ensure their success in the field. There are many qualities that mark a good training facility.

First and foremost, a good motorcycle repair school should provide their students plenty of hands-on training. When students use their own hands repairing motorcycles, they learn a lot easier. Next to hands-on training, students should also ensure that the motorcycle school offers the most advanced repair classes. It is essential that students get trained on fixing modern motorcycle engines.

Essential core classes should include motorcycle suspension systems, four stroke engines, two stroke engines, brake systems, motorcycle electrical systems, fundamentals of electricity, and motorcycle fuel systems. The school should also have highly qualified instructors. The best motorcycle repair instructors are those with many years of experience in the field. Students should ensure that they attend a motorcycle school with excellent instructors.

Finally, a motorcycle repair school should provide help to their graduates to get a job in the field. This will ensure students that they will not only be trained properly, but that they will also have a good start in their career.

Learn to Speak Spanish Through Online Programs

The Spanish language is becoming increasingly more important to speak and understand. More than 420 million people speak Spanish, including those who speak it as a second or third language. Approximately 17 million of those are in the United States, making speaking Spanish more than just a passing fad. Fortunately, there are many online resources geared towards helping people learn how to speak Spanish.

Learn Conversational Spanish

The website, studyspanish.com, provides people with the opportunity to learn conversational Spanish. Although this program will not help you achieve fluency, by reading the lessons and repeating sounds and phrases with the audio attachments, you can be well on your way to carrying on a conversation. Sample beginning lessons are available online, and students can add to their knowledge with the purchase of CDs.

Courses, Tutors and Games in Spanish

Websites like 123teachme.com provide grammar, vocabulary, verb conjugations and sounds, like the other websites, but they also incorporated games and quizzes. These games and quizzes use vocabulary and phrases to test students knowledge and memory. People using this site can also work with Spanish tutors, people who know the language fluently, to get one-on-one help and accelerate the learning process.

Use Videos on Google and YouTube

Videos are available on YouTube and Google, and allow Spanish students to hear how the words are said, including accents and emphasis, but also see how they're said. Some of these videos use visual aids, displaying words and their pronunciation, like a book and audio tape would do, while others use people. The videos are for the beginning and advanced learners, depending upon the individuals needs and desires.

Learn Practical Spanish

Websites like e-spanol.hu/en outline the basics of Spanish, including grammar, vocabulary and expressions. This website provides games, quizzes, tests, word practices, audio videos and transcripts for students to test their knowledge and maximize they're Spanish skills.

Master Words and Phrases

For the beginning and advanced Spanish speakers, or students who simply want a larger vocabulary, websites like learn-spanish.co.il/ are ideal. This website lectures specific words and phrases that can make your Spanish more descriptive and detailed, including words relating to travel, color, shapes, sports, animals, food and clothing. However, this website does not include an audio, but only a simple visual of the words.